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ANAROCK Retail partners with UAE’s Vindico for post-COVID-19 Store Designs

ANAROCK Retail has entered into a strategic partnership with international retail design and delivery specialist Vindico to offer comprehensive services to ensure the success...

Architecture of Port Blair Cellular Jail is based on Pennsylvania System

The architecture of Cellular Jail was conceptualized on the basis of 'Pennsylvania System or Separate System' theory in which separate confinement is necessary for...

This may make work from home much easier

Work from home seems to be a new norm, at least in the near future, thanks to COVID-19 breakout. Meanwhile, many have ventured to...

Major reforms in architecture education announced

The Minimum Standards of Architecture Education Regulations, 2020 released by the Council of Architecture (COA) yesterday will go a long way in aligning the...

Chandigarh to go for digital door number system

As part of the Smart city project, Chandigarh Smart City Limited (CSCL) is planning to develop map based citizen service delivery system using digital...

ANAROCK Retail partners with UAE’s Vindico for post-COVID-19 Store Designs

ANAROCK Retail has entered into a strategic partnership with international retail design and delivery specialist Vindico to offer comprehensive services to ensure the success of retail stores in the post-pandemic world. In an industry...

Architecture of Port Blair Cellular Jail is based on Pennsylvania System

The architecture of Cellular Jail was conceptualized on the basis of 'Pennsylvania System or Separate System' theory in which separate confinement is necessary for each inmate for complete isolation from other inmates. No communication...

This may make work from home much easier

Work from home seems to be a new norm, at least in the near future, thanks to COVID-19 breakout. Meanwhile, many have ventured to make your life further comfortable. A Bengaluru based company, TheHomeOffice.in,...

Major reforms in architecture education announced

The Minimum Standards of Architecture Education Regulations, 2020 released by the Council of Architecture (COA) yesterday will go a long way in aligning the architectural education with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 announced...

Chandigarh to go for digital door number system

As part of the Smart city project, Chandigarh Smart City Limited (CSCL) is planning to develop map based citizen service delivery system using digital door number which would include QR code numbering, GIS mapping...

GRIHA compliant dwelling units to be built for RS Secretariat employees

At last Rajya Sabha Secretariat employees will be getting dwelling units as the government will be constructing 40 houses in the prime Sector 12,  R.K. Puram in the national capital. It may be noted...

Beirut explosion destroys many cultural heritage assets

The tragic explosions in Beirut on 4 August 2020 destroyed a number of cultural assets in Beirut, which are a testimony to the country’s rich culture, identity and history. Important museums and galleries including...

Karnal Smart City’s ICCC to be ready by November

Karnal, a city in Haryana, that is also known for rice production, is expected to go live as a smart city soon, as various smart city projects - including the Integrated Command and Control...

TCGL to illuminate heritage monuments

Tourism Corporation of Gujarat Ltd (TCGL) has decided to illuminate and provide innovative and decorative lighting and Sound and Light shows at various heritage monuments and tourist places. The objective of this exercise is...

Bihar heritage commission’s composition evokes criticism

Composition of newly-constituted Bihar heritage commission has invited the wrath of  historians, preservationists and scholars who have alleged that the panel has "no representation" from conservation architects and other independent domain experts. It may...

CoA relaxes eligibility criteria for B Arch course

Keeping in mind the extraordinary circumstances arising out of COVID-19 breakout and subsequent countrywide lockdown, Council of Architecture, the governing body of the Architecture profession in the country, has relaxed eligibility criteria for admissions...

India achieves 7.5 bn sq ft of green building footprint: IGBC

The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC), formed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) has  claimed that as on date, there are 5,975 projects, equivalent to 7.55 billion sq ft of green buildings and...

Residential demand to fall by 60% in FY21: CRISIL

Crisil expects demand for residential space to fall by 50-60% in FY21 as job insecurity will keep it in check. In the first quarter of the current financial year, demand and supply for residential...

This smart shading systems of TERI can cool down your homes

The new shading system developed by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in partnership with the Department of Science & Technology can achieve considerable indoor comfort with reduced electricity consumption in air conditioning and...

Radiant cooling is efficient, effective & safe cooling system

Radiant Cooling developed by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) is found to be efficient and giving better quality of thermal comfort. In case of Radiant Cooling, cooling is achieved through radiant heat transfer...

Canadian Golf Architect designs Mizoram’s first GolfCourse

Union Minister of State for Culture & Tourism (Independent charge) Shri Prahlad Singh Patel virtually inaugurated the “Thenzawl Golf Resort” project which is the first Golf Course of Mizoram. The project is implemented under...

Panchshil Realty implements British Safety Council’s COVID-19 related control measures   

Pune based Panchshil Realty and British Safety Council have announced that at the time of the audit, Panchshil Realty had implemented, proper and adequate policies, procedures, and arrangements relating to control of COVID-19 within...

Real estate sentiments at record low in Q1FY20: NAREDCO

According to a report prepared by Knight Frank, FICCI and NAREDCO, sentiments in the real estate sector were at a record low in the first quarter of FY21. The Real Estate Sentiment Index for...

AP sings swansong for Amaravati Capital City Project

Andhra Pradesh government performed the last rites of Amaravati Capital City Project last week by abolishing the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA). Amaravati Capital City project, an ambitious project of the erstwhile...

Cement prices fail to sustain at higher levels in July

Cement manufacturers’ attempt to hike price in July came a cropper as the demand was weak and construction activities had slowed down. Attempts were made by the manufacturers to hike price in several pockets...

UP government to move Supreme Court against NGT order

The Uttar Pradesh Forest Department will move the Supreme Court against NGT’s February order quashing provisional licences issued by the Uttar Pradesh government for establishing new wood-based industries in the state. NGT had quashed...

Nalanda campus may become first net-zero campus in India

Nalanda University campus when completed will become country’s first net-zero campus meaning whatever energy consumed within the campus will be generated within the campus itself. Since the location has no potential to generate energy...

Government announces two models for developing ARHCs

Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has come out with two models for the development Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHCs) through public private partnership mode. It may be recalled here that the Union...

Design alterations may increase execution time of Ram temple

As more and more details of the final design of the Ram temple are emerging, it’s now clear that temple work will take minimum three-and-a-half-year to be ready. Though the basic design of the...

An urban forest in just 7 months

Viral Desai, a renowned businessman and environmentalist and now popularly known as Green Man of India, has successfully created the first Urban Forest of Indian Railways through his ‘Hearts of Work Foundation.’ Using the...

Government plans to develop a furniture cluster

Furniture making is one area where the government is aiming to kill many birds with single stone. Under the ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat Mission’, the government is working to develop a furniture cluster near a port...

Fresh plea against EC to Central Vista project allowed

The Supreme Court yesterday allowed filing of a fresh plea challenging the June 17 environmental clearance (EC) granted to government’s ambitious Central Vista project, covering 3-km stretch from Rashtrapati Bhavan to India Gate in...

Consumers worried as wood panel prices go up

Despite the prevailing bearish undertone, plywood manufacturers across the country have recently hiked the prices of plywood which has taken the user industries and consumers by surprise. Plywood price has gone up by 3-4%...

UNEP suggests four ways to make place of worship eco-friendly

Around the world, there are an estimated 37 million churches, 4 million mosques, 20,000 synagogues and hundreds of millions of temples. Experts say many of these houses of faith could become models of sustainability by...

Chicago’s Wrightwood 659 to host exhibition on BV Doshi’s works

The Chicago gallery Wrightwood 659, in partnership with the Vitra Design Museum of Germany, will present the work of Indian architect, Balkrishna Doshi.  The show, Balkrishna Doshi: Architecture for the People, will start from...

CapitaLand commences work on its Chennai IT Park

CapitaLand, Singapore based diversified real estate group, has commenced construction for the first phase of the International Tech Park Chennai (ITPC), Radial Road in Chennai. Located along Chennai's IT corridor, 9.3ha IT park has...

Construction equipment business going through rough weather: CRISIL

According to a CRISIL research report, the construction equipment (CE) sales volume has fallen 70 per cent year-on-year in the first quarter and utilisation nearly halved due to outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent...

Rising diesel cost adds to worries of cement manufacturers

Rising diesel and pet-coke prices are a cause of concern for the cement manufacturers who are already battling a subdued demand due to lockdown and Monsoon. Diesel price has increased almost 29% compared with...

250-year-old Ran Baas at Qila Mubarak to be made hotel

Department of Tourism & Cultural Affairs (DTCA) through Punjab Heritage & Tourism Promotion Authority wants to convert Ran Baas heritage building into a 4-Star hotel through public private partnership route. The Authority is currently...

Mindspace REIT plans an IPO

Mindspace REIT will be the second REIT (after Embassy Office Parks REIT) to come out with in IPO after SEBI liberalised the rules regarding the REIT operations in 2018. Belonging to K Raheja group,...

Heritage character of Amritsar railway station will be maintained

The Ferozepur Division of the Northern Railway has clarified that the original structure of the Amritsar railway station would be maintained during its facelift. This has put at rest the fears allayed by the...

How cities are using nature to keep heatwaves at bay

The more the planet warms, the more cities are finding they need new ways to keep urban temperatures down and protect their residents. Heatwaves are already by far the deadliest weather-related disasters in Europe;...

Sunteck acquires 50 acre land in Vasai West, Mumbai

In one of the biggest real estate deals post the lockdown, luxury developer Sunteck Realty Ltd has acquired a prime project of nearly 50 acres in Vasai (West) in Mumbai North having a development...

July sees its first PVC price hike

PVC price hike of Rs 1.5/kg or 2% in mid-July is the first one in this quarter and has come nearly a after the last price hike in June. PVC users now only hope...

New Secretariat will reflect prestige & culture of the state: KCR

Telangana Chief Minister K Chandrashekhar Rao wants the new integrated Secretariat complex to be designed in a manner that it will showcase the stateliness of Telangana besides functioning as the administrative headquarters of the...

June-July demand sends positive signals for paint makers

If the sales of later part of June and first few weeks of July are any indication, Decorative paints industry seems to be crawling back to normalcy much faster than the industry had anticipated...

Ar. Prem Nath bestowed with the prestigious, “Baburao Mhatre Gold Medal 2019”

Ar. Prem Nath Has been Bestowed with the prestigious, "Baburao Mhatre Gold Medal 2019" during the Virtual Event of NATCON 11th-12th July, 2020 by the Indian Institute of Architects IIA. Ar. Prem Nath frequently referred to as "Seminal Architect" &...

Slight changes in original Ram Mandir design likely

Work on Ram Temple in Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh is likely to start next month and the construction  is likely to be completed in three and half years. Meanwhile, some changes in the original...

Construction work on new island in Qatar starts

Construction works for new island, Gewan Island, started in Qatar last week when United Development Company (UDC) held a ceremonial concrete pouring to announce the launch of the project. Works will be undertaken for...

CSIR-CMERI develops Touchless Faucet

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research- Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CMERI), Durgapur, unveiled the  COVID Protection System (COPS) for Workplace as a game-changer in the current Pandemic Scenario. The COPS for Workplace includes...

NGT directs CPCB to ensure ban on petcoke, furnace oil

The National Green Tribunal has directed the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to ensure that states and union territories (UTs) ban the use of petcoke and furnace oil as fuels in industries and switch...

Italian architect Paolo Tommasi dies of Covid-19 in Puducherry

Paolo Tommasi, 92, an Italian architect who was a resident of Sri Aurobindo Ashram in the Union territory of Puducherry, died of Covid-19 on Thursday. Paolo who played a crucial role in designing the...

Mace to collaborate with ANAROCK to deliver tech-driven construction solutions

Mace, the international consultancy and construction company, and ANAROCK Group, India's leading real estate services company have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to provide a new and integrated project management service to Indian developers,...

Residential sector to see major decline in FY21: Ind-Ra

Ongoing COVID-19 pandemic will have a major impact on the real estate industry and the overall residential demand is expected to decline by over 25 per cent year-on-year in the current financial year after...

On time arrival of Monsoon caps demand growth for ACs

On time arrival of Monsoon this year is not a good new for the air conditioner manufacturers who were hoping for a delayed arrival of rains so that they could clear the unsold inventory...

Ar. Gopakumar awarded Baburao Mhatre gold medal

Ar. S Gopakumar, founder and architect at Kochi-based Kumar Group Total Designers, has been awarded Baburao Mhatre gold medal for the year 2020 by Indian Institute of Architects (IIA), the national body of Indian...

Infosys aims to become net-zero carbon emitter by 2040

Infosys, second largest IT company in India, will become net-zero carbon emitter across all their businesses by 2040, well before the Paris Climate Agreement’s goal of 2050. The company recently signed up for ‘The...

Import of furniture may face non-tariff barriers

The government is considering import restrictions on more than 350 items, including furniture, by putting in place non-tariff barriers to support domestic industry. Steps such as introducing an import-monitoring system for some and mandatory...

Chances of COVID-19 spread among construction workers is high: ICRIER

A paper published by Indian Council for Research on International Economic Research (ICRIER) says that given the close proximity in which construction workers work (and often even live), the chances of the virus spreading...

Promote Green Architecture: Vice President

The Vice President of India, Shri M Venkaiah Naidu has called upon the architects of the country to adopt and promote Green Architecture. The Vice President emphasized the need to strike the right balance...

Hagia Sophia is now a mosque

Hagia Sophia, the UNESCO World Heritage site in Istanbul that has been a museum since 1934, is now a mosque. Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has signed a presidential decree turning the hugely symbolic...

Maharashtra govt relaxes SRA norms to fast track slum housing in Mumbai

To ensure faster availability of housing for slum dwellers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR), the Maharashtra State Housing Ministry has announced a series of relaxations in its slum redevelopment policy. The government will also...

This design may solve our cities’ water problem

Designed by Pankaj Vir Gupta and Maria Gonzalez Aranguren (Professors of University of Virginia), this World Architecture Community Award winning project (under Student Projects category) is aimed at solving the perpetual problem of Jaipur...

EESL to deploy 162 public charging stations in NOIDA

Noida authority has been sanctioned 162 Public EV Charging Stations (PCS) comprising 54 Bharat DC001 (15kW) and 108 122kW (50kW CCS2+ 50kW CHAdeMO+ 22kW Type2) Fast Chargers under the FAME India Scheme Phase-II of...

Real estate absorption falls in the first half

In the first half of 2020 commercial real estate absorption dropped by 45% YoY and supply by 41%. As expected, lockdown has hindered inspection or commitment of new spaces. According to available reports, tenants...

New secretariat building will be in Deccani & Kakatiya architecture style

With High Court clearing the way, Telangana government is now firing on all cylinders see its pet project through without further loss of time. Within few days of High Court’s green signal, the government...

Centre to push Affordable Rental Housing Complexes for migrants

The government will develop Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (AHRCs) for urban migrants / poor as a sub-scheme under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY – U) by: Converting the existing vacant government funded...

Demolition of Telangana secretariat begins

The Telangana government has started the demolition of the old secretariat building in Hyderabad which may be completed in next few days. The entire area around the secretariat was cordoned off and barricades were...

First World Heritage City Lab held

The first World Heritage City Lab organised by UNESCO from 17 to 26 June 2020 provided an online avenue for innovation laboratory for analysis, assessment, learning, and development of strategies for the protection and...

COVID-19 led disruption may lead to sizeable residential price correction

According to some real estate analysts with leading broking houses, COVID-19 disruption is likely to set the stage for meaningful residential price correction. Further, markets which are more investor driven may witness higher volatility...

Greenply lost Rs 60 cr sales in Q4 due to lockdown

Greenply Industries, India’s largest plywood manufacturer, has lost about Rs 60 crore of sales in March quarter due to nationwide lockdown. India went into total lockdown on 25th March to prevent spread of COVID...

Morbi is limping back to normalcy

Morbi, the ceramics cluster of India, is slowly limping back to normalcy after prolonged closure due to nationwide lockdown. While April and May were blank months as far as operations are concerned June saw...

Cement prices see correction in June

Good news for the cement consumers is that strong pricing environment seen in April-May period could not be sustained in June and the same started correcting during the month. Most markets have registered moderate...

Odisha plans to adopt water-sensitive urban design and planning

The Housing and Urban Development Department (HUDD), Government of Odisha, in collaboration with Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), plans to work towards mainstreaming Water-Sensitive Urban Design and Planning (WSUDP) in cities and towns...

Many tiles units may be closed in Morbi

Though lockdown has been partially lifted, normalcy has not yet returned in tiles industry in Morbi. According to industry sources, 300 out of 900 manufacturing units in Morbi have started their production since May...

This 18th century personality’s life can inspire everyone

Yesterday’s Google Doodle featured not so much talked about personality from Brazil, that is, Joaquim Pinto de Oliveira, also known as Tebas. He is not much talked about because nothing much written about him....

Tamil Nadu Shelter Fund to cross subsidise affordable houses

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) has approved a $50 million Tamil Nadu Housing and Habitat Development Project to support innovations in housing finance and strengthen housing sector institutions in the state. It...

Prince Pipes ventures into water storage tank business

Prince Pipes and Fittings has ventured into water storage tanks business with ‘STOREFIT’ brand. The company has started manufacturing and supplying tanks from its Dadra unit to do some test marketing in Gujarat market...

Asia’s first continuous rebar production facility in Punjab inaugurated

Asia's first-ever Continuous Galvanized Rebar (CGR) Manufacturing Facility was virtually inaugurated by Shri Dharmendra Pradhan - Hon'ble Union Minister of Steel, Petroleum & natural Gas yesterday. The first-of-its-kind facility, situated near Gobindgarh in Punjab,...

Jaisalmer, Jodhpur stones may become global heritage resource

The government is now eyeing for Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) status for the famous yellow limestone of Jaisalmer and pink sandstone from Jodhpur. It may be recalled here that Makrana marble, the white...

Realtors still hopeful of liquidity infusion by govt

Realtors, battling the liquidity crisis, hope that the government will come to their rescue. The sector expects that the current measures announced are not enough to lift the beleaguered sector around  and any further...

Softer VAM price gives breather to adhesive manufacturers

The only silver lining for the adhesive manufacturers who are facing lockdown induced demand disruption is the softer prevailing price of their key input, vinyl acetate monomer (VAM), in the international market. VAM, which...

OBPS implemented in more than 2k cities

Online Building Permission System (OBPS), a digital transformation-based reform aimed at reducing the overall time taken for approvals of building plans, has been implemented across 2,057 cities, including 444 AMRUT cities. As a result,...

Asian Paints may pass on benefits of softer RM price to consumers

If Asian Paints’ FY20 fourth quarter performance is any indication, lockdown though implemented hardly for one week in March has impacted the decorative paints industry adversely. Its also true that had there been no...

Over 4.6L homes likely to miss delivery deadline in 2020: Anarock

Liquidity crisis post NBFC crisis of 2018 has already taken its toll on Indian real estate sector in the form of delays in completion of flats and stalled projects and the outbreak of COVID-19...

NATA will be held in August

National Aptitude Test in Architecture (NATA) will be held in August, according to a release by the Council of Architecture. Earlier it was scheduled to be held on 19th April 2020 and 31st May,...

Rs 5k crore disbursed to building & construction workers during lockdown

The State Governments have disbursed an amount of Rs 4957 crore cash assistance till date to approximately two crore registered construction workers across the country during the lockdown. It may be recalled here that...

Railways to develop 15 stations for multi-functional complexes

The Rail Land Development Authority (RLDA) plans to develop 15 multi-functional commercial complexes on lease basis in different states. RLDA has floated two requests for proposal (RFPs) for development and leasing of 15 multi-functional...

WelcomHotel Amritsar becomes Punjab’s 1st LEED Platinum certified hotel 

WelcomHotel Amritsar is now Punjab's 1st LEED Platinum certified hotel and ITC Hotel’s 18th LEED platinum certified property. ITC Hotels is also the first and largest chain of hotels in the world with maximum...

Cement prices down from May level

Dealer survey reveals that cement price has fallen from the May 2020 level but is still higher as compared to the average price in the fourth quarter of last financial year. Cement prices have...

Steps taken to revive Pokhran Pottery

Not many people may be knowing that Pokhran in Rajasthan is not just famous for India’s first nuclear blast but also its home for potteries which are popular as “Pokhran Pottery.” Now the government...

Major correction in property prices unlikely: 360 Realtors

A report published by 360 Realtors says that property prices are unlikely to correct considerably from the current levels. According to the report, Developers are unlikely to take up major cuts in property prices...

Paint makers become aggressive to push up sales

With sales not picking up on expected lines, paint manufacturers are becoming aggressive to push up their sales. As the initial pent up demand has dried out and with no major new projects coming...

EESL plans IPO in next calendar year

Energy Efficiency Services Ltd, a joint venture of power PSUs, is planning Rs 5,000 crore IPO. The listing process is expected to commence by the end of the current or the start of next...

Real estate remains preferred asset class for investors: Survey

Despite subdued consumer demand amid an economic slowdown, real estate is still perceived as the preferred mode of investment, a survey conducted jointly by Housing.com and National Real Estate Development Council (NAREDCO) has revealed. Nearly...

NGMA in Jaipur House to be illuminated

The National Council of Science Museums under Ministry of Culture is planning illuminate the newly restored Jaipur House of the National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA) situated on the C-Hexagon of the India Gate...

A recipe for eco-concrete

It is the most widely used product in the world. Cement is indispensable yet its reputation has become quite tainted in the course of the ongoing climate debate. Mixed with water, sand and gravel,...

PVC price rises 17% in three weeks

Between May 18th and June 11th PVC price has gone up by as much as 16.8% or by Rs 11 per kg. Price was raised thrice in May and twice June so far. Last...

Work begins on world’s largest cultural and heritage development in Saudi Arabia

Construction on the first phase of Diriyah Gate, a sweeping 18th century adobe city that once served as the capital and stronghold of the first Saudi State, has resumed despite whole world’s fight against...

Cement demand in May was better than expected

Cement demand in the month of May was better than initially estimated due to strong demand from rural and semi urban areas. According to some sources in the industry, demand fall in May was...

NMA to appoint 3 whole-time Directors

The National Monuments Authority will be soon appointing three whole-time directors. The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains AMASR (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2010 under which the Authority has been established provides for...

Proposed Central Vista Project will not increase area’s population density

According to Ar. Bimal Patel, the architect in charge of the Central Vista project, the proposed project will not result in increase in density of population in the area as had been feared by...

State-of-the-art Flood Warning System for Mumbai Launched

i-FLOWS - Mumbai, a state-of the-art Integrated Flood Warning System for Mumbai developed by Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), has been launched to provide early warning for flooding especially during high rainfall events and...

Rebranding of ASI on the cards

You may soon see the age-old Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in new form and possibly more efficient.  A Niti Aayog working group under the chairmanship of Amitabh Kant has suggested rebranding of Archaeological...

Dr Vandana Sehgal is part of Ram temple trust jury

Dr Vandana Sehgal, the principal of the college of architecture at Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Technical University (AKTU) Lucknow, has been named as a member jury to finalise design and architecture of the proposed...

editor's picks

ANAROCK Retail partners with UAE’s Vindico for post-COVID-19 Store Designs

ANAROCK Retail has entered into a strategic partnership with international retail design and delivery specialist Vindico to offer comprehensive services to ensure the success...

Architecture of Port Blair Cellular Jail is based on Pennsylvania System

The architecture of Cellular Jail was conceptualized on the basis of 'Pennsylvania System or Separate System' theory in which separate confinement is necessary for...

This may make work from home much easier

Work from home seems to be a new norm, at least in the near future, thanks to COVID-19 breakout. Meanwhile, many have ventured to...

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Residential demand to fall by 60% in FY21: CRISIL

Crisil expects demand for residential space to fall by 50-60% in FY21 as job...

Major reforms in architecture education announced

The Minimum Standards of Architecture Education Regulations, 2020 released by the Council of Architecture...

Architecture of Port Blair Cellular Jail is based on Pennsylvania System

The architecture of Cellular Jail was conceptualized on the basis of 'Pennsylvania System or...